On Farm Testing
Poor adoption of newly generated agriculture and allied technologies is main constraint in the district.the reason is predominance of schedule tribe farm families, illiteracy, poor socio-economic condition, limited extension reach, etc. looking to the problems of farmers, the centre assessed and refined large number of technologies developed by university and icar institutions . in the last five years, kvk refined 9 recommended technologies in crop production, horticulture and live stock with farmers perspective. the refined technologies have been included in the package and practices of zone-iv b of rajasthan and widely adopted by the farmers in the adopted villages as well as in the district.
Imbalance Wse of Fertilizers in Wheat
Wheat is a major rabi crop of the district and cultivated in an area of 80000 ha in the district. farmers of the district generally used low dose of phosphorus and apply nitrogen in two splits, i.e., at 25 and 45 das which causes nutrient imbalance in wheat.further, due to continuous adoption of cereal-cereal crop rotation field were also showing zinc defecieny. after identifying problem and its causes, an oft was planned and executed on balance fertilization in wheat.it was observed that application of 120:40:30 kg n, p2o5 and k2o/ha with 25 kg znso4/ha and full amount of p,k, zn as basal and n in three split doses at basal, first & second irrigation resulted in higher grain yield (53.3 q/ha), which was 46.02 per cent higher over farmer’s practice.
Refined recommendation has been adopted by a large number of farmers in the district covering more than 35000 ha area of wheat.
Poor Nutrient Management in Soybean
Majority of the farmers of the district were using only dap in soybean. this blanket application of fertilizers reduced yield and oil content in soybean. looking to the problem an oft was planned and executed with farmers participation to solve the problem. soil test based fertilizer recommendation (25:40:10 kg n, p2o5 and k2o/ha) were given in which 50 % n was applied through organic manures and remaining by inorganic fertilizer and p was given through ssp. this treatment resulted 58.33 % higher yield over farmer’s practice of nutrient management. more than 50 per cent soybean growers in kvk adopted villages started analysis of soil samples and also adopted this refinement.
Low and Iimbalance use of Fertilizers in Rabi Maize
Rabi maize is cultivated in an area of 40000 ha in the district. due to favourable climatic condition, there is ample scope to realize potentional productivity in rabi maize. imbalance fertilization in rabi maize was major constraint and resulted in low yield. an oft was laid out to find out optimum dose of fertilizer in rabi maize. balance use of fertilizer, i.e., application of 150:60:30 kg n, p2o5 and k2o/ha with 25 kg znso4/ha resulted in 34.34 % higher yield as compared to farmer’s practice of nutrient management. presently, more than 40 per cent farmers in the district adopted this refined recommendation in rabi maize.
Screening of Suitable and Adaptable Variety of Greengram
The centre laid-out large number of assessment trials on greengram varieties in the district and farmer did not accepted some of the new varieties due to small grain size,disease susceptibility ,taste etc.the centre conducted an oft to screen high yielding and disease resistant varieties of greengram with farmers participation. result of oft indicated that ganga-8 and sml-668 varieties of greengram proved better in terms of yield (3.62 q/ha and 2.58 q/ha, respectively) and disease resistance as compared to local check (2.05 q/ha). farmers accepted ganga -8 and sml-668 due to bold grain size,disease resistance and taste .varieties ganga-8 and sml-668 spread in kvk operational area and 54 per cent farmers are using these two varieties.
Low yield of Wheat Due to Heavy Infestation of Weed Flora
In kvk operational area farmers were using 2, 4-d and isoproturon for weed control in wheat but these chemicals failed to control narrow leaved weeds completely due to resistance. after identifying problem and its causes, an oft was designed with farmers active involvement on introduction of new herbicides. newly introduced herbicide clodinafop 60 g a.i. + metsulfuron 4 g a.i. per ha controlled 83.3 % weeds upto 40 days after sowing and resulted in higher yield (53.5 q/ha) over use of isoproturon (48.5 q/ha) and 2,4-d (42.0 q/ha). refined recommendation has been adopted by a large number of farmers in the district covering more than 30000 ha area of wheat.
Use of Organic Manures in Nutri-Garden
To overcome malnutrition in children and women of tribal households,kvk established large number of nutri-gardens.but these households did not use nutrient in these nutri-gardens and which resulted in less production.to increase awareness among tribal farm women, an oft was conducted about use of vermicompost in kitchen gardening. result showed that 25 to 60.7 per cent increase in yield of different vegetable crops were recorded by use of vermicompost. now,majority of farm households have established nutri-garden with vermicomposting.
Low Milk Production in Buffaloes due to Poor Feed Management
In the district buffaloes are major milch animals, but the milk production per animal is low due to poor feeding and deficient protein feed. to overcome this problem, an oft was carried out with active participation of animal rearers. two groups of buffaloes were fed 300 and 600 gm/day/animal of processed soybean before one month of parturition and three months of calving. processed soybean feed was fed @ 300 gm/day/animal resulted in increase in body weight of animal by 13.45 per cent and milk yield by 49.98 per cent over control group. further, animals fed 600 gm processed soybean/day/animal which increased body weight and milk yield by 19.93 and 65.48 per cent, respectively over control group. this refined technology has been communicated to the department of animal husbandry, govt. of rajasthan for wider applicability in the district as well as in the state.
Low Body weight of Goat due to Local Breed
Local non-descript goats in the district have low body weight and poor productivity. looking to the problem, an oft was planned for breed improvement in goat with sirohi breed. visible difference in body weight of progeny of local and sirohi breed was seen during experimentation. the result shows that body weight of sirohi breed kids at birth, 3 months and 6 months were 2.8, 16.4 and 27.2 per cent higher over local breed kids of same age. looking to the results and farmers acceptability.kvk submitted project and received funds from various agencies and provided 132 sirohi breeding bucks in adopted villages in last five years.more than 4000 improved progenies of goats are visible in the adopted villages. farmers are getting good income by sale of 9-12 months old sirohi breed male (rs. 4000 to 7500/-)
Productivity Enhancement of Rice by Sri Technique
The system of rice intensification is a new methodology for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients which resulting in healthy soil and plants, supported by greater root growth and the soil microbial abundance and diversity. an oft was carried out to study the influence of crop geometry on grain yield of rice under sri.the grain yield of rice (76.35 & 4.44 %) was superior with 30x30 cm planting distance during both the years in comparison to farmers practice and 25x25 cm planting distance, respectively. the 10-15 per cent rice grower has started this technique in their fields.
Enhancing Productivity of Hybrid Chilli Through Balanced Nutrient Management
The continuous use of sub-optional doses of nutrients in an unbalanced proportion led to serve depletion or nutrient resources of soils, causing multiple nutrient deficiencies and decline in crop productivity under such a situation, balanced nutrient management has arsumed a great importance and has vital role in the enhancing of soil viz-a- viz crop productivity. an oft was laid ent to arsers the effect of balanced nutrient management in hybrid chilli for enhancing productivity. the chilli yield was highest with application of balanced nutrient management which was to the tune of 36.6 and 82.71 per cent higher than general recommended dosese of fertilizers and farmers practice of nutrient management, respectively. the b:c ratio was also higher (4.78) with balanced nutrient management as compared to 2152 with farmer’s practice of nutrient management.
Front Line Demonstration
With an aim to demonstrate frontline technologies on farmers field,to generate production data and feed back, kvk laid out 10663 fld’s on field crops viz., maize, cotton, rice, soybean, blackgram, wheat,barley,gram, greengram in 4252 ha. area on newly released varieties and technologies of different crops during last five years. for popularization of vegetables and fruits production, live stock production and fisheries, kvk also laid out 10159 demonstrations on vegetables (chilli, okra, tomato, brinjal, onion, cabbage, cauliflower, bottle guard, water melon, long melon), fruit crops (mango, papaya, lime, sapota), livestock (sirohi goat & buck, green fodder, mineral mixture, backyard poultry, murrah he buffalo, water drinker, milk cane, azolla). a brief illustration about these demonstrations are being given as under.
With an aim to demonstrate yield potential of newly released hybrids of maize, 4616 frontline demonstrations in 1852.6 ha. were conducted by using hybrids bio-9681, pehm-2, bio-9682, prabal, dkc-7074 and hqpm-1. the average yield of these hybrids was recorded 46 to 52 q/ha, which was 26.9 to 38.29 per cent higher over local check. other technologies demonstrated in fld’s were seed treatment, sowing at 60 cm row spacing (in place of 45 cm), recommended seed rate of 25 kg/ha, use of inm, weed management and ipm. presently, 92 per cent farmers have adopted single cross maize hybrids in the operational area of kvk. in case of rabi maize cent per cent farmers adopted hybrids.
Rice: Flds on rice were laid out in 60 ha area on 167 farmers field during the period under report. variety p-1460 recorded an increase of 25.9 per cent yield over local check. variety p-1460 is gaining popularity in the operational area of kvk and farmers are adopting suggested cultivation practices and technologies especially seed treatment, inm and nursery raising . farmer’s of adopted villages are also producing seed of p-1460 and providing to farmers of adjoining villages. at present, 60 per cent paddy growers of adopted villages are using this variety and harvesting bumper yield of quality rice grain.
Wheat : KVK introduced newly released thermo- insensitve wheat varieties viz., raj-4037, raj-3765, raj-4079, mp-3288 and raj-3777 in the district through 2351 flds in 985.3 ha. area. variety raj-4037 is now popular among farmers and is being grown in more than 60-65 per cent of the wheat area. due to its suitability to climatic condition of banswara. the variety raj - 4037 gave average yield of 36.7q/ha which was 35.95 per cent higher over local check (variety lok-1). varieties lok-1 and raj-3077 were grown in large area, but after the introduction of raj-4037 in last two-three years, 60-65 % wheat area in the district is being covered under this variety. in addition to this, most of farmers of kvk adopted villages have also started to reduce their wheat seed rate to 150 kg/ha instendrs 200-250 kg/ha, adopted balanced fertilization along with application of nitrogen in three splits and top dressing of urea after irrigation instead of nitrogen in two splits and top dressing of urea before irrigation and thereby reduced n loses in wheat cultivation.
Barley : KVK Introduced barley varieties rd-2035 and rd-2052 in the district through 872 flds in 349.2 ha area. variety rd-2035 becomes popular and now grown in more than 45-50 per cent barley area due to its suitability in climatic condition of banswara under temperature fluctuation conditions. the variety rd - 2035 gave average yield of 40 q/ha which was 35 per cent higher over local check.
Blackgram : KVK Demonstrated pu-31 variety of blackgram through 350 fld’s in 140 ha area and an increase in yield of 100 to 215 per cent was recorded. looking to the performance of pu-31 variety, the area under this variety increased four fold in last two years in the adopted villages.
Gram: Flds on gram were laid out in 489.6 ha area with 1234 farmers during the period under report. varieties gng-469, jg-11, rvg-202 and pratap chana-1 along with ipm modules to manage gram pod borer, recorded increase in yield up to 87 per cent as compared to farmer’s practices. the demonstrations varieties have been spread throughout the district and grown in more than 50 per cent gram area.
Summer Greengram: KVK Demonstrated sml-668, pdm-139 and g-8 varieties of greengram during zaid season through 893 fld’s in 321.2 ha area and an increase in yield of 18.6 to 38 per cent was recorded in fld’s over local check. looking to the performance of sml-668, it is being spread in operational area of kvk and nearby villages also.
KVK Demonstrated js-9560 variety of soybean through 160 flds in 60 ha. area and an increase in yield of 37.82 to 47.38 per cent was rewarded. looking to the performance of js-9560 variety, the area under this variety increased in last two years in the adopted villages.
KVK Introduced bt. cotton mrch-6025, rch-134, sigma, ncs-138 through 87 fld’s in 35 ha area and an increase in average yield of 30.5 per cent over local check was obtained and farmers also gained more return due to less use of insecticides. now, bt. cotton area in the district spread like wild fire and more than 90 per cent area of cotton is under bt. cotton.
Vegetables and Spices
To Enhance income of marginal and small tribal farm families through crop diversification, kvk made special efforts.besides Its own mandate, kvk generated funds from deptt. of tad,gor,nhm,rkvy and naip, to introduce vegetable cultivation for higher income and generate additional employment to farm households in the district. in the adopted villages, 7410 flds in 1490.2 ha area on vegetable crops, viz., chilli, okra, tomato, brinjal, bottle gourd, cabbage etc. and spices (ginger and turmeric) were laid out in tribal dominated villages. this intervention changed the socio-economic status of farmers. farmers earned net income of rs. 20,000 to 50,000/-just from 0.2 ha land. earlier they were getting only rs.4000 to 10000/- from same piece of land. vegetable cultivation not only enhanced family income but also generated additional employment. presently in kvk operational area all most more than 45 per cent tribal families adopted vegetable cultivation. the farmers achieved state of art in vegetable cultivation especially in talwara & garhi block of the district.
Though KVK has limited fund for orchard establishment but funds received under naip and nhm helped in establishment of orchards. during last 5 years the kvk established 85 orchards of mango, lime, guava and papaya as intercrop in 41 ha area. now the orchards have started bearing fruits.the centre also established 148 orchards of papaya.in papaya taiwan (red lady-786) was found better due to early flowering (4 months after transplanting), higher yield (80-100 kg fruits/plant), long shelf life (8-10 days) and hermaphrodite nature. papaya red lady 786 has become very popular and spreaded throughout the district and about 60-70 per cent papaya growers have planted this variety. besides this, kendra also provided 186176 quality planting materials of mango, lime, guava, sapota, aaonla, pomegranate and papaya to farmers on cost basis for orchards establishment during last five years.
Animal Husbandry Demonstration
Sirohi Goat & Buck : As the district is tribal dominated and farmers rear goat for their livelihood but they have non-descript poor yielder goats. with an aim to improve the breed of existing goat, the kendra provided 132 breeding bucks of sirohi breed as community input in adopted villages. presently more than 4000 progenies of sirohi breed are visible in the adopted villages. besides this, kvk also provided 63 goat units (2 goats + 2 kids) to land less bpl and widows to ensure their livelihood. one year old male of sirohi progeny attained average weight of 30 to 32 kg, whereas, the non-descript male attains weight 22 to 25 kg. by sale of each male goat kids farmers earned additional returns worth rs.2000 to 3000/-.landless bpl and widow families are earning rs.8000 to 9000 /-per annum from goat unit.
Backyard Poultry : To generate additional income to landless and marginal farmers, kvk established 805 units of nirbheek and pratapdhan backyard poultry (16+4 birds). nirbheek breed is a dual purpose and cross of rir and aseel. this is a fearless poultry breed resembling desi birds. it lays 120 to 140 eggs per year. pratapdhan is a recently developed breed of poultry by mpuat, udaipur. it is three way cross between native x broiler x rir . it lays 160 eggs per year with broodiness character. by this intervention each family earned an additional income of rs. 9500-10000 /-per unit by sale of eggs and cocks.
Besides these, 60 q mineral mixture, 100 water drinker, 100 milk cane and 1213 fld’s of green fodder (berseem, oat, bajra chari, azolla etc.) were also laid out on farmers fields who are engaged in milk production. these interventions improved animal health as well as increased milk yield by 250 to 4 50 ml /day/animal.
Fish Culture Activities
The district has good water resources and there is vast scope of fish culture. in naip, kvk in collaboration with cife, mumbai eastlibshed a chinese circular fish hatchery complex. by this hatchery, centre is producing about one crore spawn of indian major carps annually and these spawn are being made available to fish farmers. in addition to this, the centre has also well developed ornamental fish rearing and fish processing unit. a women self help group (shg) is formed for rearing ornamental fishes in the banswara city. 20 frp tanks were made available to shg for ornamental fish rearing. the shg is earning about rs. 2.50 lac annually by this intervention.
During last 5 years kendra also stocked 5.5 crores fish spawn in 215 ha water bodies and benefited 285 fish farmers. this intervention resulted additional revenue of 80 lac in the kvk operational area and helped in overcoming the malnutrition situation among tribal farm families.
Farm Equipment and Implements
For increasing input use efficiency and to reduce drudgery in agricultural operations,5849 improved farm implements like iron hand racks, serrated sickles , khupri, maize sheller, watering cane, mb plough, ridge plough, bund former etc. were made available to 4454 farm families. further, farmers are also using bullock and tractor drawn farm implements viz., rotavator, disc harrow, repear , seed- cum- ferti drills etc. placed at rural technology centres on custom hiring. in custom hiring a token amount of money is taken from farmers for wear and tear for these impliments. by the use of improved farm implements and equipment 25-30% improvement in the work efficiency has been reported.
Creation of Storage Potential
Storage potential of 12641 q grain / seed has been created in the adopted villages by providing 3319 g.i storage bins of 2 q capacity. this intervention saved 10-15 per cent grain/seed from storage pest and spoilage due to moisture. this intervention is saving approx. 12641 q grain/seeds per annum worth rs. 227 lac.
Mangers are very important structures for saving precious fodder. a tribal farmer does not use mangers for feeding of cattle and buffaloes. for efficient feed management, 380 mangers of bricks lined with cement mortar were constructed in kvk adopted villages and it has significantly reduced losses. efforts are being for popularizing this technology through state department of animal husbandry.
In the adopted villages 81090 meters of quick connect hdpe pipes were made available to 1187 farmers for efficient water management and increasing the irrigated area. with this intervention 220 ha more area brought under various crops including 40 ha area of vegetables thereby increasing cropping intensity. by this intervention, farmers joined hand and carried water up to 1 to 2 kms from water source and took crops in rabi and zaid. in garhi and talwara , 2 farmers dugged jalkunds and are rearing fishes.
12644 families were provided with vegetable seeds of 5-6 crops for nutri-garden for improving nutrition. besides, home consumption each families earned rs. 1200 to 1500/- per annum by sale of vegetables from nutri-garden.
Aaccess to Knowledge Through Information KIOSK (Touch Screen)
The kendra established 2 rural technology centres in masotia village of talwara and sagwadia village of garhi blocks with an aim to access to knowledge and custom hiring of farm implements and equipments. in these centres information kiosk is placed.
The information kiosk (touch screen) contains scientific package in simple hindi language and in pictorial form of all field crops, vegetables, fruits, hi-tech horticulture, animal husbandry, poultry, ipm and fisheries along with 32 icar films on various aspects of agriculture. farmers and school going boys and girls are regularly visiting these centers for knowledge. these information kiosks proved helpful in access to knowledge easily at farmers door step. these touch screen are being regularly updated. both the rtc are adjoining to rajeev gandhi sewa kendra established by gor for access to information and are visited by large number of farmers.
For rapid transfer of proven technologies, various extension activities are being organized regularly by the kvk. during last five years 10 kisan melas (37133), 101 field days (16058), 30 agricultural exhibitions (47465), 731 film and tv show (18723), 9 kisan gosthies (10575), 70 animal treatment camps (8820 animals), 11 soil test campaigns (453), 31 diagnostic visits (873) and 23 exposure visits (896) were organized to motivate farmers for adoption of new technologies. the scientists also delivered 295 lectures as resource person, 79 radio talks, 40 tv talks and published 147 press releases (annexure-iii) on various technologies and activities. in all, 140996 farmers and farm women were benefited through various extension activities. kvk scientists are fully involved in solving the day to day problems of the farmers as clearly reflected by the facts that during the last five years period about 30852 farmers visited kvk personally, 6582 farmers contacted on telephone and 9046 farmers were benefited during scientists visits to farmers field to solve their field related problems. for rapid transfer of technology kvk started involvement of public representative in its programme. on occasion of kisan mela and agricultural exhibition h e the governor of rajasthan smt. marget alva, hon’ble gramin vikas & panchayati raj minister sh.mahendra jeet singh malviya (govt. of rajasthan), hon’ble agriculture minister sh.prabhu lal saini, agriculture minister (govt. of rajasthan), hon’ble state motor garage minister sh. jeetmal khant (govt. of rajasthan), hon’ble m.p. sh. maan shankar ninama, smt.kanta bheel, mla garhi, sh. dhan singh rawat, mla banswara, sh. navneet lal ninama mla ghatol, smt.resham malviya, zila pramukh, banswara, pradhans, sarpanchs and other public representatives took part in discussion. they motivated farmers for taking agriculture as business for getting higher economic returns.
Worked as Resource and Knowledge Centre for Agriculture Technology
This mandate is added four years back but the kendra is working as resource and knowledge centre since its inception. kendra is regularly providing technical backstopping to public and private sector organizations.
- IFFCO, KRIBHCO, dsc ltd., RSSC, World Vision, GVT, Sadguru Foundation, Reliance Foundation, Pragati gramin vikas trust, progress Sansthan, disha sansthan, Vagdara, Baif, Swach and many other local ngo’s are depend on kvk in taking advice of kvk scientists for running their projects.
- KVK Scientists are also supporting agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry related projects under atma, rkvy, nhm, nfsm, nbm etc. implimentated by govt., ngos and other agencies in the district.
- KVK is helping in updating knowledge of official of department of agriculture, horticulture, women and child development department, Nehru Yuva Kendra, Cooperatives, etc. through organizing special training programmes.
- KVK has a functional plant health clinic and e-linkage facilities. these facilities are being utilized for solving the farmer’s problem. it is the reason why large number of foot steps of farmers reaches daily at kvk.
- KVK is attached to mobile messaging services and providing message services to 1800 farmers weekly, which will be increased manifold shortly. besides these.
- Kendra have various live demonstration units like model Nursery, Poultry, Aabitary, Azolla Vermicompost, Seed Production, Water Harvesting Technology, Mother Orchards, Stitching, Post Harvest Technology and Fish Hatchery & Fish Processing etc. Line Departments and Ngo’s Officials are taking advantage of these resources in their human resource development programmes.